Jesus didn’t go anywhere when he died. He was dead in the tomb.
We read in Isaiah’s prophecy that Jesus “poured out His soul unto death,” that His soul was made “an offering for sin.” (Isaiah 53:12, 10.) Then again we read, “Thou wilt not leave my soul in Sheol [meaning the grave (sometimes mistranslated hell)]; neither wilt Thou suffer Thine Holy One to see corruption.” (Psalm 16:10.) The Apostle Peter quoted this same prophesy in Acts 2:27 (NKJV), “For You will not leave my (Jesus’) soul in Hades, Nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption,” Acts 2:27 (NKJV). These two verses prove the equivalency that sheol (Hebrew) = hades (Greek). But what is the condition of death or sheol or hades?
Jesus’ friend, Lazarus, was ill. Jesus said to his disciples, “‘Our friend Lazarus sleeps, but I go that I may wake him up.’ Then His disciples said, ‘Lord, if he sleeps he will get well,’” John 11:11,12 (NKJV). Jesus finally spoke plainly, and said, “ Lazarus is dead,” John 11:14.
The sleep of death is explained in the Old Testament, “Whatever your hand finds to do, do it with all your might; for there is no activity or planning or knowledge or wisdom in the grave (Sheol) where you are going,” Ecclesiastes 9:10. Jesus was in the grave, in the “sleep of death,” (sheol or hades) parts of three days.
It states in Ephesians 1:20 that it took God’s mighty power to raise Jesus from the dead, and set him at His own right hand. What a joy to know that Jesus did not remain in the death-state but was raised the firstborn from the dead. Because of this, we all have the hope of a resurrection in due time. (John 5:25-29; 1 Corinthians 15)
In summary, the man Christ Jesus, our Savior, died at 33½ years, was dead, buried in the grave for parts of three days, and was resurrected on the third day.